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Week 2: Flames

4 to 8​ February, 2018​​


New week, new project, new team. Take a deep look inside a flame with lasers or detailed computer simulations, or learn how to tame a flame with plasma  .​







9:00 - 10:30 AM 


Class 1: Flame Fundamentals ​

Class 2: Optical Diagnostics​

Class 3: Flame Simulations

Class 4: Pollutant Emissions

10:30 – 12:00 PM

Lab tour

Lab project​

Lab project

Lab project​​

Lab project​​

12:00 – 01:00 PM






01:00 – 05:00 PM

​Lab tour Safety training

Lab project​

​Lab project

​Lab project

​Student Presentations


Safety training

  • Lasers, chemicals, open flames, better get more safety training.
  • ​Laser safety
  • Compressed gases
  • Chemical spills
  • Hazardous waste


  • Class 1: Flame Fundamentals (Diffusion flame - Premixed flame - Laminar flame - Turbulent flame)
  • Class 2: Optical Diagnostics (Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) -  Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) – Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) - Raman & Rayleigh scattering)
  •  Class 3: Flame Simulations (the different approaches: DNS – RANS – LES)
  • Class 4: Pollutant Emissions (What are they? Where are they from? How to reduce them?)

Students Pre​​sentations

Show your new friends why you have been hiding in the lab the entire week, and give your best to win the FLAMES best presentation award ​


  • Lab Project 1​ : Optical Diagnostics for Laminar Flames


Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of a laminar Bunsen flame: which differences between premixed and diffusion flames?​

The students will align a PLIF system and to get images of radical species present in the combustion front and the burnt gases of laminar premixed and diffusion flames. They will post-process the images in order to qualitatively compare the OH density in the different areas of the combustion. They will explain their results based on the theory presented during the morning class.

  • ​Lab project 2: Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent Flames

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of a swirl stabilized flame: what becomes the flow after a flame?

The students will align a PIV system for investigation of the flow during combustion of a turbulent pre-mixture of methane and air. They will optimize the acquisition parameters in order to obtain nice velocity fields before and after the flame front. Based on the theory of combustion, they will explained the observed gas dynamics.​

  • Lab project 3: Flame Speed in Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

How do we determine the laminar burning velocity from the propagation of a flame in a constant volume chamber?​

​The students will make high-speed movies of the propagation of methane-air flames in a constant volume chamber. From the images, they will determine the burning velocity of these flames, for different experimental conditions, such as, different initial pressures and fuel/air mixture fractions. They will discuss their results with respect to the theory of laminar burning velocity.

  • ​Lab project 4: Soot Characterization​

Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) on a McKenna burner: what affect the soot density?

The students will setup a laminar atmospheric pressure sooty flame and align a LII system in order to determine the soot density. They will change the combustion parameters in order to investigate their effects on the soot formation. The results will be analyzed based on the theoretical aspects presented during the morning class. ​

  • Lab project 5: Plasma-Assisted Combustion

How electricity can increase the stability of a turbulent flame?​

The students will run an atmospheric pressure swirled burner in an unstable mode of combustion. They will identify which parameters affects the flame stability. They will apply nanosecond electrical discharges and observe their effects on the flame stability, for different electrical settings. They will discuss the potential mechanisms of plasma action.

  • Lab project 6: Simulations of Canonical Flames and Beyond

Simulations of steady premixed and diffusion flames: how can simulations help in understanding combustion behavior? What are the challenges to simulate two-dimensional flames?

The students will perform one dimensional simulations of premixed and diffusion flames of methane and air by using the software Cantera. They will perform a parametric study of the combustion parameters and analyze the results obtained in order to identify the challenges in performing two dimensional simulations.​